Arts and Crafts (1850-1900)
- Items need to be fit for purpose (function is important)
- Arts and Craft designers were against industrialisation.
- Made from natural materials, based around nature.
- Colour and texture. Colour added ‘unity’ and ‘focus.’ Only natural textures were used: wood, stone, wool, linen etc.
- Splendour – They experimented with different materials and techniques, this led to unusual designs.
William Morris (1834-1896)
- He was a poet, writer, designer, innovator in the arts and crafts movement and a socialist
- He help found Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co.
- He worked with stained glass, carving, furniture, wallpaper, carpets and tapestries
- He had strong socialist viewed which got him arrested once; these view influenced what he created.
Art Nouveau (1890-1905)
- Started in France, Paris
- A form of bridge between Arts and Craft and Modernism; old styles and values sat alongside new ones.
- The Languid line
- New aesthetic views for a new urban lifestyle.
- They were for mass-production
- Used in architecture, glass, jewellery, fabrics and wallpaper
- Curvy lines and flowers
- Use of glass and wrought iron
- Feminine form
- Influences by other cultures – Japanese, Celtic, Arabian, ancient Greek.
Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928)
- He was British, born is Glasgow
- He was an architect and he studied at Glasgow School of Art
- He mixed Art Nouveau with Scottish Architecture
- Celebrated technology and the mechanised industry.
- Different variation appeared around Europe: Bauhaus in Germany, De Stijl in the Netherlands, Constructivism in Russia and Futurism in Italy.
- Liked mass-production
- Less is more
- Machine Aesthetic
- Rejected the old natural style/aesthetic.
Bauhaus Modernism (1919-1933)
Note: All notes on Bauhaus are inherit all notes from Modernism.
- Created in Germany, just before WW2, after WW1
- Bauhaus means “House for building.”
- Things need to be functional, highest priority
- Reduction in decorative frills.
Marcel Breuer (1902-1981)
- He liked the combination of art and technology.
- He’s famously known for his ‘Wassily’ chair.
- The ‘Wassily’ chair was only possible because a German manufacturer had just recently perfected the art of mass-produced bending of metal tubes.
- He then immigrated to the USA where he obtained a professorship in School of Design at Harvard
Art Deco (1925-1939)
- Popular modernism
- It’s a reaction to post-war (WW1)
- In favour of a mechanical modern world.
- Symmetry and repetition
- Zig-zagged geometric patterns
- Inspired by ancient Egypt.
- Bright Colours
- Use of expensive materials
Eileen Gray (1879-1976)
- Went to Slade school of Fine arts in London.
- Like Japanese/French art styles at the time.
- She started with art, then moved onto architecture.
- Inspired by Marcel Breuer.
- Consumerism and Style
- New prosperity and widened consumer choice
- Celebrating speed and efficiency
- People at the time were hyped about the future, air travel and space exploration.
- Tear-drop shape
- Futuristic style
Raymond Loewy (1893-1986)
- Born in France, spent most of his time in the USA.
- Influenced by the American life-style.
- He likes “Beauty through Simplification.”
- His work mixed Art Deco with Streamlining
- He worked with a lot of multinational companies like NASA where he was later employed at.
- He spent time streamlining many items
- Streamlining allowed for greater speed and less drag.
Post-Modernism – New Design Style (1975-Present)
We currently live in a post-modernism world, this means that anything you see that’s not based upon a past movement, or from another culture is post-modernism.
- Opposes Modernism
- They think ‘More is more’ rather than the Modernism ‘Less is more’, they think ‘Less is bore!’
- Humour and personality
- Retro Design
Philippe Starck (1949-Present)
- He’s a French designer
- He’s all for mass-production, he had chair and toothbrushes mass-produced
- He’s even produced a mouse for Microsoft